Despite losing almost all recently consolidated territories in the first year of the Russo-Persian War of 1826–28, Russia managed to bring an end to the war with highly favourable terms with the Treaty of Turkmenchay, including the official gains of what is now Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iğdır Province. Omissions? The members of the Duma were chosen by electoral colleges and these, in their turn, were elected in assemblies of the three classes: landed proprietors, citizens and peasants. Police spies were planted everywhere. The Russian Empire functioned as an absolute monarchy on the ideological doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality until the Revolution of 1905, when a semi-constitutional monarchy was established. ", Stephen R. Burant, "The January Uprising of 1863 in Poland: Sources of Disaffection and the Arenas of Revolt. Though the Empire was not officially proclaimed by Tsar Peter I until after the Treaty of Nystad (1721), some historians argue that it originated when Ivan III of Russia conquered Veliky Novgorod in 1478. In 1722, he turned his aspirations as first Russian monarch toward increasing Russian influence in the Caucasus and the Caspian Sea at the expense of the weakened Safavid Persians. Russian agricultural kholops were formally converted into serfs earlier in 1679. Access to the Baltic Sea was blocked by Sweden, whose territory enclosed it on three sides. The millions of rubles of redemption money received from the crown was spent without any real or lasting agricultural improvements having been effected. [68][69], The former serfs became peasants, joining the millions of farmers who were already in the peasant status. ", "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires", In pictures: Russian Empire in colour photos, "Chapter 1: The Environment and its Consequences", Kritika: Explorations in Russian and Eurasian History, "Russian Nationalism and the Divided Soul of the Westernizers and Slavophiles", General armorial of noble families in the Russian Empire (Gerbovnik),, States and territories established in 1721, States and territories disestablished in 1917, Articles containing Russian-language text, Articles with disputed statements from October 2015, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the flag caption or type parameters, Pages using infobox country or infobox former country with the symbol caption or type parameters, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from March 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2017, Articles with dead external links from May 2017, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License. While later rulers did not discard this new title, the ruler of Russia was commonly known as Tsar or Tsaritsa until the imperial system was abolished during the February Revolution of 1917. After 167 years of German language administration and education, laws were declared in 1888 and 1889 where the rights of the police and manorial justice were transferred from Baltic German control to officials of the central government. At about the same time, Kiev proclaimed the Vladimir-Suzdal Principality to further consolidate its governance of the area. In 1719, the governorate was divided into three provinces, Vyatka, Solikamsk and Tobolsk. Food and fuel were in short supply, casualties were increasing, and inflation was mounting. Nevertheless, his minister of education, Sergey Uvarov at the university level was able to promote more academic freedom for the faculty, who were under suspicion by reactionary church officials. Following the Swedish defeat in the Finnish War of 1808–1809 and the signing of the Treaty of Fredrikshamn on 17 September 1809, the eastern half of Sweden, the area that then became Finland was incorporated into the Russian Empire as an autonomous grand duchy. Russian Recognition of the United States, 1803. [28] Poland was punished by losing its distinctive political and judicial rights, with Russianization imposed on its schools and courts.[29]. In order to repress further revolts, censorship was intensified, including the constant surveillance of schools and universities. After the Revolution of 1905, Russia developed a new type of government which became difficult to categorize. Meanwhile, all vestiges of local self-government were removed. Although he made and annulled all senior ecclesiastical appointments, he did not determine the questions of dogma or church teaching. In 1859, there were more than 23 million serfs in usually poor living conditions. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. [73], Censorship was heavy-handed until the reign of Alexander II, but it never went away. [78], Tsar Nicholas I was a reactionary who wanted to neutralize foreign ideas, especially those he ridiculed as "pseudo-knowledge." Exiled Jesuits set up elite boarding schools until their order was expelled in 1815. Most rich families still depended on private tutors. Much of Russia's expansion occurred in the 17th century, culminating in the first Russian colonization of the Pacific in the mid-17th century, the Russo-Polish War (1654–67) that incorporated left-bank Ukraine, and the Russian conquest of Siberia. In particular, they called into being a loyal and competent administration, and centralised the government. The Imperial Standard of the Tsar, used from 1858 to 1917. In 1881 Alexander II was assassinated by the Narodnaya Volya, a Nihilist terrorist organization. Over the 10th and 11th century the Kievan Rus became a powerful empire in Europe reaching its peak under Vladimir the Great and Yaroslav I the Wise. Ministry of Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); Riasanovsky, Nicholas V. and Mark D. Steinberg. Under Catherine, there was something of a golden age in Russia, with what has become known as the Russian Enlightenment, a flourishing of art and culture. His ministers were responsible solely to him, and not to the Duma or any other authority, which could question but not remove them. Subjects of the Russian Empire were segregated into sosloviyes, or social estates (classes) such as nobility (dvoryanstvo), clergy, merchants, cossacks and peasants. [69][67] Were peasants living in tens of thousands of small villages and a highly patriarchal system. On the other hand, since 1861, and more especially since 1882, when the Peasant Land Bank was founded for making advances to peasants who were desirous of purchasing land, the former serfs, or rather their descendants, had between 1883 and 1904 bought about 78,900 km2 (19,500,000 acres) from their former masters. Her reign, which lasted nearly 20 years, is also known for her involvement in the Seven Years' War. Peter the Great changed his title from Tsar in 1721, when he was declared Emperor of all Russia. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Kievan or Kyivan Rus' (Old East Slavic: Роусь, romanized: Rusĭ, or роусьскаѧ землѧ, romanized: rusĭskaę zemlę) was a loose federation of East Slavic and Finno-Ugric peoples in Europe from the late 9th to the mid-13th century, under the reign of the Varangian Rurik dynasty. "The empire strikes out: Imperial Russia,‘national’ identity, and theories of empire." Recent research into the physical stature of Army recruits shows they were bigger and stronger. The Army and the church had its own training programs, narrowly focused on their particular needs. The USSR, also known as the Soviet Union, was established in post-revolutionary Russia. During his reign Russia declared the Franco-Russian Alliance to contain the growing power of Germany, completed the conquest of Central Asia and demanded important territorial and commercial concessions from the Qing. [50], The Tsarist system was overthrown in the February Revolution in 1917. [18] As Napoleon's forces retreated, the Russian troops pursued them into Central and Western Europe and to the gates of Paris. The executive is in the hands of an elective mayor and an uprava, which consists of several members elected by the duma. [17], In 1812 French Emperor Napoleon, following a dispute with Tsar Alexander I, launched an invasion of Russia. After a brief resistance, the colony surrendered and the Russian settlers were deported to Odessa. At the beginning of the 19th century, the Russian Empire extended from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the Black Sea in the south, from the Baltic Sea on the west into Alaska and Northern California in America on the east. For administration, Russia was divided (as of 1914) into 81 governorates (guberniyas), 20 oblasts, and 1 okrug. The serfs were freed in 1861, but the landowning aristocratic class kept control. Between 1744 and 1867, the empire also controlled Russian America. Russian control is gradually exerted over the fierce Turkish tribes living to the east of the Caspian Sea. "[5] Swain says, "The first government to be formed after the February Revolution of 1917 had, with one exception, been composed of liberals."[4][5]. But she did not carry out significant structural reforms. They favored far-reaching reforms, and hoped the landlord class would fade away, while agreeing they should be paid for their land. Franklin A. Walker, "Enlightenment and religion in Russian education in the reign of Tsar Alexander I. The planning and building of the railway network after 1860 had far-reaching effects on the economy, culture, and ordinary life of Russia. Russia had signed the Treaty of Georgievsk with the Georgian Kingdom of Kartli-Kakheti to protect them against any new invasion of their Persian suzerains. At the Congress of Berlin in July 1878, Russia agreed to the creation of a smaller Bulgaria, as an autonomous principality inside the Ottoman Empire. [75], Educational standards were very low in the Russian Empire. Soviet historiography proclaimed that the Russian Empire of the 19th century was characterized by systemic crisis, which impoverished the workers and peasants and culminated in the revolutions of the early 20th century. Updates? To the East it had the Asiatic territories of the Empire, Siberia and the Kyrgyz steppes, from both of which it was separated by the Ural Mountains, the Ural River and the Caspian Sea — the administrative boundary, however, partly extending into Asia on the Siberian slope of the Urals. [25] In the 1828–29 Russo-Turkish War, Russia invaded northeastern Anatolia and occupied the strategic Ottoman towns of Erzurum and Gümüşhane and, posing as protector and saviour of the Greek Orthodox population, received extensive support from the region's Pontic Greeks. His assassination in late 1916 by a clique of nobles could not restore the Tsar's lost prestige. All religions were freely professed, except that certain restrictions were laid upon the Jews and some marginal sects. But the cost of her campaigns added to the burden of the oppressive social system, which required serfs to spend almost all of their time laboring on their owners' land. Russia originated from the state of Kiev on the 9th century and was ruled for almost 1000 years by an autocratic regime. After regaining control of the country, a convention of leading Russians elected Michael Romanov to be the new Tsar. Plagued with logistical problems, outdated military equipment and incompetent Russian officers, Russi… Novaya Zemlya and the Kolguyev and Vaygach Islands also belonged to it, but the Kara Sea was referred to Siberia. This number must be augmented by the nearly 3 million Jews who emigrated from the Russian Empire to the West from the 1870s to 1917. The larger cities (Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Odessa, Sevastopol, Kerch, Nikolayev, Rostov) had an administrative system of their own, independent of the governorates; in these the chief of police acted as governor. In the late 1870s Russia and the Ottoman Empire again clashed in the Balkans. Alexander II decided to abolish serfdom from above, with ample provision for the landowners, rather than wait for it to be abolished from below in a revolutionary way that would hurt the landowners. [4][5] The third-largest empire in history, at its greatest extent stretching over three continents, Europe, Asia, and North America, the Russian Empire was surpassed in size only by the British and Mongol empires, leaving the empire lasting 196 years. Disappointment at the results of the war stimulated revolutionary tensions, and helped Serbia, Romania and Montenegro to gain independence from and strengthen themselves against the Ottomans.[34]. David Schimmelpenninck Van Der Oye, "Russian foreign policy, 1815-1917" in D. C. B. Lieven, ed. A growing humanitarian movement attacked serfdom as inefficient. In every group, women were far less literate than men. The company also established settlements in Hawaii, including Fort Elizabeth (1817), and as far south in North America as Fort Ross Colony (established in 1812) in Sonoma County, California just north of San Francisco. Peter reorganized his government based on the latest political models of the time, moulding Russia into an absolutist state. By envisioning their own role in a rail network they came to understand how important they were to the empire's economy. She slowed down the reforms and led a successful war against the Ottoman Empire. This relocation expressed his intent to adopt European elements in his empire. All owners of houses, and tax-paying merchants, artisans and workmen are enrolled on lists in a descending order according to their assessed wealth. The liberal elements among industrial capitalists and nobility believed in peaceful social reform and a constitutional monarchy, forming the Constitutional Democratic Party or Kadets. The Social Democrats differed from the SRs in that they believed a revolution must rely on urban workers, not the peasantry. In 1889, a Russian adventurer, Nikolay Ivanovitch Achinov, tried to establish a Russian colony in Africa, Sagallo, situated on the Gulf of Tadjoura in present-day Djibouti. He made Astrakhan the centre of military efforts against Persia, and waged the first full-scale war against them in 1722–23.[10]. His many reforms brought considerable Western European cultural influences to the new Russian Empire. This contradiction in terms demonstrated the difficulty of precisely defining the system, essentially transitional and meanwhile sui generis, established in the Russian Empire after October 1905. Revolutionaries believed that the newly freed serfs were merely being sold into wage slavery in the onset of the industrial revolution, and that the bourgeoisie had effectively replaced landowners.[33]. The throne passed to Alexander III (1881–1894), a reactionary who revived the maxim of "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality" of Nicholas I. "The structure of modern Russian history: Toward a dynamic model. ", Neumann, Iver B. [47], Defeat in the Russo-Japanese War (1904–1905) was a major blow to the Tsarist regime and further increased the potential for unrest. In 1815, Dr. Schäffer, a Russian entrepreneur, went to Kauai and negotiated a treaty of protection with the island's governor Kaumualii, vassal of King Kamehameha I of Hawaii, but the Russian Tsar refused to ratify the treaty. In ancient times, Greek and Iranian settlements appeared in the southernmost portions of what is now Ukraine. By 1825, the national government operated six universities, forty-eight secondary state schools, and 337 improved primary schools. [32] Emancipation brought a supply of free labour to the cities, stimulating industry, and the middle class grew in number and influence. Prussia remained the dominant force in the nation until the empire’s demise at the end of another war in 1918. Kennard, Howard Percy, and Netta Peacock, eds. The Bolsheviks, under Vladimir Lenin, supported the idea of forming a small elite of professional revolutionists, subject to strong party discipline, to act as the vanguard of the proletariat in order to seize power by force. They accepted land reform but insisted that property owners be fully paid. Like all empires, it featured great diversity in terms of economies, ethnicities, languages, and religions. To the South it had the Black Sea and Caucasus, being separated from the latter by the Manych River depression, which in Post-Pliocene times connected the Sea of Azov with the Caspian. By the end of the 19th century the area of the empire was about 22,400,000 square kilometers (8,600,000 sq mi), or almost ​1⁄6 of the Earth's landmass; its only rival in size at the time was the British Empire. With his authority destroyed, Nicholas abdicated on 2 March 1917. Educational institutions in the empire included: Former empire in Eurasia (1721–1917) and North America (1721–1867), For other places with a similar name, see. In the Almanach de Gotha for 1910, Russia was described as "a constitutional monarchy under an autocratic Tsar". Ten years after Moscow’s official founding, a wooden wall was built to protect it, forming the original Kremlin. The late 1820s were successful military years. But the revolt was easily crushed, leading Nicholas to turn away from the modernization program begun by Peter the Great and champion the doctrine of Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality. This opened up East Asia, and Russian interests focused on Mongolia, Manchuria, and Korea. In the course of its history, the Russian Empire of the second half of the 19th Century passed from a feudal socioeconomic foundation to one grounded in capitalism. Under Pobedonostsev, revolutionaries were persecuted and a policy of Russification was carried out throughout the Empire. 1736 - A weakened Safavid Empire is overthrown by Nadir Shah. In 1906, there were governors-general in Finland, Warsaw, Vilna, Kyiv, Moscow, and Riga. Beyond this, the power of the Russian Autocrat was virtually limitless. As a result of its spending, Russia developed a large and well-equipped army, a very large and complex bureaucracy, and a court that rivaled those of Paris and London. These gestures of compassion garnered Catherine much positive attention from Europe in the Enlightenment age. Peter continued and intensified his predecessors' requirement of state service for all nobles. [42] The Industrial Revolution began to show significant influence in Russia, but the country remained rural and poor. [79] For the rest of the century, the national government continued to focus on universities, and generally ignore elementary and secondary educational needs. It was only in the steppe governments that the situation was more hopeful. Vassals and protectorates of the Russian Empire included the Emirate of Bukhara, the Khanate of Khiva and, after 1914, Tuva (Uriankhai). The class of kholops, close in status to slavery, remained a major institution in Russia until 1723, when Peter converted household kholops into house serfs, thus including them in poll taxation. Russia recognized the United States on October 28, 1803, when Czar Alexander I issued a ukase declaring his decision to recognize Levett Harris as American Consul at St. Petersburg. A major peasant uprising took place in 1773, after Catherine legalised the selling of serfs separate from land. [49] Military reversals and shortages among the civilian population soon soured much of the population. France, Britain and Austria tried to intervene in the crisis but were unable to do so. Russian victories in these wars greatly expanded Peter’s empire, and the defeat of Sweden won Russia direct access to the Baltic Sea, a lifelong obsession of the Russian leader. Government during this period usually rested in the hands of individuals who for one reason or another exercised personal influence over the tsars. With the exception of this territory – modern-day Alaska – the Russian Empire was a contiguous mass of land spanning Europe and Asia. "Writing the History of the Russian Revolution after the Fall of Communism. Now, in the 19th century, important consolidations are made to the south of this vast region. More than 88 million of the Russians were peasants. Workmen were treated in special manner with every industrial concern employing fifty hands or over electing one or more delegates to the electoral college. Tsar Ivan III (1462–1505) laid the groundwork for the empire that later emerged. The legal code known as Russkaya Pravda (Russian Truth) is founded in his reign. However, at this time, the majority of the population lived in European Russia. The aggregate value of the redemption and land taxes often reached 185 to 275% of the normal rental value of the allotments, not to speak of taxes for recruiting purposes, the church, roads, local administration and so on, chiefly levied from the peasants. It also had supreme jurisdiction in all disputes arising out of the administration of the Empire, notably differences between representatives of the central power and the elected organs of local self-government. In early 1877, Russia intervened on behalf of Serbian and Russian volunteer forces in the Russo-Turkish War (1877–78). Serfs were the least literate. Some of the tsar’s ostensible subjects, such as the inhabitants of Siberia and the Cossacks, lived in completely autonomous communities, only nominally under the authority of the tsar. For these allotments the peasants had to pay a fixed rent, which could be fulfilled by personal labour. In the aftermath of the Russo-Turkish War, 1806–12, and the ensuing Treaty of Bucharest (1812), the eastern parts of the Principality of Moldavia, an Ottoman vassal state, along with some areas formerly under direct Ottoman rule, came under the rule of the Empire. Soviets (councils of workers) appeared in most cities to direct revolutionary activity. As a result, Peter acquired four provinces situated south and east of the Gulf of Finland, securing access to the sea. The Transcaucasus Railway connected the city of Batum on the Black Sea and the oil center of Baku on the Caspian Sea. "Empire" as a description of foreign policy, This page was last edited on 16 January 2021, at 20:37. [citation needed] According to another point of view, the term Tsardom, which was used after the coronation of Ivan IV in 1547, was already a contemporary Russian word for empire. Poland was divided in the 1790–1815 era, with much of the land and population going to Russia. Often they had to compete with other cities. In these assemblies the wealthiest proprietors sat in person while the lesser proprietors were represented by delegates. The economy slowly industrialized with the help of foreign investments in railways and factories. Once Afghanistan was informally partitioned in 1907, Britain, France and Russia came increasingly close together in opposition to Germany and Austria. Many reforms were promised, but few were actually carried out before 1820 when he turned his attention to foreign affairs and personal religion and ignored reform issues. The system established by the law of 1864 was significant in that it set up two wholly separate orders of tribunals, each having their own courts of appeal and coming in contact only in the Senate, as the supreme court of cassation. Under the Treaty of Nystad of 1721, the Baltic German nobility retained considerable powers Literacy among women was very low. In Ukraine, where the allotments were personal (the mir existing only among state peasants), the state of affairs does not differ for the better, on account of the high redemption taxes. The House of Romanov ruled the Russian Empire from 1721 until 1762. 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